Athaliah’s six year reign over the kingdom of Judah symbolized the failure of achieving a united kingdom. Jehoshaphat and Ahab’s marriage alliance did more to ruin the kingdoms of Judah and Israel than it did to strengthen them. The primary problem with the alliance was that the secular kingdom of Israel had the dominant role. The fact that Jehoram’s wife Athaliah ended up ruling the kingdom of Judah shows that she was like her mother Jezebel, determined to turn the people away from God.
While Athaliah was reigning, the temple was shut down, indicating there was no formal worship of God. Jehoiada probably remained in his position of priest to ensure that Joash, the son of Ahaziah, was not discovered and killed by Athaliah. Joash was the only descendent of king David. His death would mean the messianic line was cut off and God’s Savior unable to come forth.
Joash was kept in hinding until he was seven years old, presumably because he wasn’t able to be king until he was old enough to understand his responsibility. At the age of seven, Joash couldn’t think logically or reason as an adult, so his capacity to rule over the people was limited. No doubt, Johoiada the priest played a prominent role in running the kingdom until Joash reached adulthood.
When it was time for Joash to become king, Johoiada brought in bodyguards to protect him and armed the priests to make sure no one got near him in the temple. “Then they brought out the king’s son, and put upon him the crown, and gave him the Testimony, and made him king. And Jehoiada and his sons anointed him, and said, God save the king” (2 Chronicles 23:11).
Athaliah’s reaction showed that she viewed herself as the legitimate ruler of the kingdom of Judah. “When Athaliah heard the noise of the people running and praising the king, she came to the people into the house of the LORD…Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and said, Treason, Treason” (2 Chronicles 23:12-13).
Athaliah attained a position of power over the people of Judah, but she never gained their affection or loyalty. Her position as queen was obtained unlawfully and therefore, she had no authority to stop what was happening. “So they laid hands on her; and when she was come to the entering of the horse gate by the king’s house, they slew her there” (2 Chronicles 23:15).